src/Pure/library.ML
author wenzelm
Wed Sep 22 18:21:48 2010 +0200 (2010-09-22)
changeset 39616 8052101883c3
parent 37851 1ce77362598f
child 39809 dac3c3106746
permissions -rw-r--r--
renamed setmp_noncritical to Unsynchronized.setmp to emphasize its meaning;
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(*  Title:      Pure/library.ML
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    Author:     Lawrence C Paulson, Cambridge University Computer Laboratory
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    Author:     Markus Wenzel, TU Muenchen
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Basic library: functions, pairs, booleans, lists, integers,
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strings, lists as sets, orders, current directory, misc.
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See also General/basics.ML for the most fundamental concepts.
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*)
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infix 2 ?
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infix 3 o oo ooo oooo
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infix 4 ~~ upto downto
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infix orf andf
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signature BASIC_LIBRARY =
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sig
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  (*functions*)
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  val undefined: 'a -> 'b
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  val I: 'a -> 'a
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  val K: 'a -> 'b -> 'a
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  val curry: ('a * 'b -> 'c) -> 'a -> 'b -> 'c
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  val uncurry: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a * 'b -> 'c
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  val ? : bool * ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val oo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'b
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  val ooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'b
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  val oooo: ('a -> 'b) * ('c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'a) -> 'c -> 'd -> 'e -> 'f -> 'b
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  val funpow: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a -> 'a
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  val funpow_yield: int -> ('a -> 'b * 'a) -> 'a -> 'b list * 'a
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  (*errors*)
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  exception SYS_ERROR of string
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  val sys_error: string -> 'a
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  exception ERROR of string
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  val error: string -> 'a
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  val cat_error: string -> string -> 'a
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  val assert_all: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> ('a -> string) -> unit
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  (*pairs*)
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  val pair: 'a -> 'b -> 'a * 'b
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  val rpair: 'a -> 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val fst: 'a * 'b -> 'a
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  val snd: 'a * 'b -> 'b
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  val eq_fst: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_snd: ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val eq_pair: ('a * 'c -> bool) -> ('b * 'd -> bool) -> ('a * 'b) * ('c * 'd) -> bool
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  val swap: 'a * 'b -> 'b * 'a
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  val apfst: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apsnd: ('a -> 'b) -> 'c * 'a -> 'c * 'b
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  val pairself: ('a -> 'b) -> 'a * 'a -> 'b * 'b
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  (*booleans*)
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  val equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val not_equal: ''a -> ''a -> bool
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  val orf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val andf: ('a -> bool) * ('a -> bool) -> 'a -> bool
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  val exists: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val forall: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  val setmp_CRITICAL: 'a Unsynchronized.ref -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  val setmp_thread_data: 'a Universal.tag -> 'a -> 'a -> ('b -> 'c) -> 'b -> 'c
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  (*lists*)
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  exception UnequalLengths
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  val single: 'a -> 'a list
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  val the_single: 'a list -> 'a
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  val singleton: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val yield_singleton: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'c) -> 'a -> 'c -> 'b * 'c
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  val apply: ('a -> 'a) list -> 'a -> 'a
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  val perhaps_apply: ('a -> 'a option) list -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val perhaps_loop: ('a -> 'a option) -> 'a -> 'a option
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  val foldl1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val foldr1: ('a * 'a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a
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  val flat: 'a list list -> 'a list
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  val unflat: 'a list list -> 'b list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a list list -> 'b list list
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  val burrow_options: ('a list -> 'b list) -> 'a option list -> 'b option list
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  val burrow_fst: ('a list -> 'b list) -> ('a * 'c) list -> ('b * 'c) list
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  val fold_burrow: ('a list -> 'c -> 'b list * 'd) -> 'a list list -> 'c -> 'b list list * 'd
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  val maps: ('a -> 'b list) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val filter: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val filter_out: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val map_filter: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val take: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val chop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val dropwhile: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth: 'a list -> int -> 'a
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  val nth_map: int -> ('a -> 'a) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_drop: int -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val nth_list: 'a list list -> int -> 'a list
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  val map_index: (int * 'a -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b list
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  val fold_index: (int * 'a -> 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list -> 'b -> 'b
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  val map_range: (int -> 'a) -> int -> 'a list
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  val split_last: 'a list -> 'a list * 'a
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  val find_index: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> int
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  val find_first: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a option
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  val get_index: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> (int * 'b) option
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  val get_first: ('a -> 'b option) -> 'a list -> 'b option
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  val eq_list: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val map2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold2: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val zip_options: 'a list -> 'b option list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val ~~ : 'a list * 'b list -> ('a * 'b) list
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  val map_split: ('a -> 'b * 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list * 'c list
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  val split_list: ('a * 'b) list -> 'a list * 'b list
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  val map_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c list
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  val fold_product: ('a -> 'b -> 'c -> 'c) -> 'a list -> 'b list -> 'c -> 'c
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  val map_transpose: ('a list -> 'b) -> 'a list list -> 'b list
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  val separate: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val surround: 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val replicate: int -> 'a -> 'a list
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  val is_prefix: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> bool
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  val take_prefix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val chop_prefix: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> 'a list * ('a list * 'b list)
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  val take_suffix: ('a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list * 'a list
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  val prefixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val prefixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes1: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val suffixes: 'a list -> 'a list list
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  (*integers*)
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  val upto: int * int -> int list
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  val downto: int * int -> int list
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  val radixpand: int * int -> int list
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  val radixstring: int * string * int -> string
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  val string_of_int: int -> string
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  val signed_string_of_int: int -> string
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  val string_of_indexname: string * int -> string
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  val read_radix_int: int -> string list -> int * string list
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  val read_int: string list -> int * string list
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  val oct_char: string -> string
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  (*strings*)
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  val nth_string: string -> int -> string
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  val fold_string: (string -> 'a -> 'a) -> string -> 'a -> 'a
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  val exists_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val forall_string: (string -> bool) -> string -> bool
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  val first_field: string -> string -> (string * string) option
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  val enclose: string -> string -> string -> string
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  val unenclose: string -> string
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  val quote: string -> string
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  val space_implode: string -> string list -> string
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  val commas: string list -> string
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  val commas_quote: string list -> string
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  val cat_lines: string list -> string
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  val space_explode: string -> string -> string list
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  val split_lines: string -> string list
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  val prefix_lines: string -> string -> string
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  val prefix: string -> string -> string
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  val suffix: string -> string -> string
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  val unprefix: string -> string -> string
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  val unsuffix: string -> string -> string
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  val replicate_string: int -> string -> string
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  val translate_string: (string -> string) -> string -> string
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  val match_string: string -> string -> bool
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  (*lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML*)
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  val member: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'b -> bool
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  val insert: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val remove: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val update: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val union: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subtract: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val inter: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'b list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val merge: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list * 'a list -> 'a list
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  val subset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val eq_set: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  val distinct: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val has_duplicates: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> bool
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  (*lists as multisets*)
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  val remove1: ('b * 'a -> bool) -> 'b -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val combine: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val submultiset: ('a * 'b -> bool) -> 'a list * 'b list -> bool
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  (*orders*)
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  val is_equal: order -> bool
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  val rev_order: order -> order
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  val make_ord: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a * 'a -> order
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  val bool_ord: bool * bool -> order
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  val int_ord: int * int -> order
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  val string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val fast_string_ord: string * string -> order
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  val option_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a option * 'b option -> order
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  val prod_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> ('c * 'd -> order) -> ('a * 'c) * ('b * 'd) -> order
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  val dict_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val list_ord: ('a * 'b -> order) -> 'a list * 'b list -> order
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  val sort: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_distinct: ('a * 'a -> order) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val sort_strings: string list -> string list
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  val sort_wrt: ('a -> string) -> 'a list -> 'a list
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  val tag_list: int -> 'a list -> (int * 'a) list
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  val untag_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  val order_list: (int * 'a) list -> 'a list
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  (*random numbers*)
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  exception RANDOM
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  val random: unit -> real
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  val random_range: int -> int -> int
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  val one_of: 'a list -> 'a
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  val frequency: (int * 'a) list -> 'a
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  (*misc*)
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  val divide_and_conquer: ('a -> 'a list * ('b list -> 'b)) -> 'a -> 'b
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  val divide_and_conquer': ('a -> 'b -> ('a list * ('c list * 'b -> 'c * 'b)) * 'b) ->
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    'a -> 'b -> 'c * 'b
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  val partition_eq: ('a * 'a -> bool) -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val partition_list: (int -> 'a -> bool) -> int -> int -> 'a list -> 'a list list
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  val gensym: string -> string
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  type stamp
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  val stamp: unit -> stamp
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  type serial
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  val serial: unit -> serial
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  val serial_string: unit -> string
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  structure Object: sig type T end
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end;
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signature LIBRARY =
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sig
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  include BASIC_LIBRARY
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  val foldl: ('a * 'b -> 'a) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a
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  val foldr: ('a * 'b -> 'b) -> 'a list * 'b -> 'b
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  val foldl_map: ('a * 'b -> 'a * 'c) -> 'a * 'b list -> 'a * 'c list
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  val last_elem: 'a list -> 'a
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end;
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structure Library: LIBRARY =
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struct
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(* functions *)
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fun undefined _ = raise Match;
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fun I x = x;
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fun K x = fn _ => x;
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fun curry f x y = f (x, y);
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fun uncurry f (x, y) = f x y;
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(*conditional application*)
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fun b ? f = fn x => if b then f x else x;
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(*composition with multiple args*)
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fun (f oo g) x y = f (g x y);
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fun (f ooo g) x y z = f (g x y z);
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fun (f oooo g) x y z w = f (g x y z w);
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(*function exponentiation: f (... (f x) ...) with n applications of f*)
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fun funpow (0 : int) _ = I
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  | funpow n f = f #> funpow (n - 1) f;
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fun funpow_yield (0 : int) _ x = ([], x)
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  | funpow_yield n f x = x |> f ||>> funpow_yield (n - 1) f |>> op ::;
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(* errors *)
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exception SYS_ERROR of string;
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fun sys_error msg = raise SYS_ERROR msg;
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exception ERROR of string;
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fun error msg = raise ERROR msg;
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fun cat_error "" msg = error msg
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  | cat_error msg1 msg2 = error (msg1 ^ "\n" ^ msg2);
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fun assert_all pred list msg =
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  let
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    fun ass [] = ()
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      | ass (x :: xs) = if pred x then ass xs else error (msg x);
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  in ass list end;
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(* pairs *)
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fun pair x y = (x, y);
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fun rpair x y = (y, x);
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fun fst (x, y) = x;
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fun snd (x, y) = y;
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fun eq_fst eq ((x1, _), (x2, _)) = eq (x1, x2);
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fun eq_snd eq ((_, y1), (_, y2)) = eq (y1, y2);
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fun eq_pair eqx eqy ((x1, y1), (x2, y2)) = eqx (x1, x2) andalso eqy (y1, y2);
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fun swap (x, y) = (y, x);
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fun apfst f (x, y) = (f x, y);
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fun apsnd f (x, y) = (x, f y);
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fun pairself f (x, y) = (f x, f y);
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(* booleans *)
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(*polymorphic equality*)
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fun equal x y = x = y;
wenzelm@233
   296
fun not_equal x y = x <> y;
wenzelm@233
   297
wenzelm@21395
   298
(*combining predicates*)
wenzelm@16721
   299
fun p orf q = fn x => p x orelse q x;
wenzelm@16721
   300
fun p andf q = fn x => p x andalso q x;
wenzelm@233
   301
wenzelm@25752
   302
val exists = List.exists;
wenzelm@25752
   303
val forall = List.all;
clasohm@0
   304
wenzelm@19644
   305
wenzelm@380
   306
(* flags *)
wenzelm@380
   307
wenzelm@32966
   308
fun setmp_CRITICAL flag value f x =
wenzelm@39616
   309
  NAMED_CRITICAL "setmp" (fn () => Unsynchronized.setmp flag value f x);
wenzelm@23932
   310
wenzelm@25797
   311
fun setmp_thread_data tag orig_data data f x =
wenzelm@26079
   312
  uninterruptible (fn restore_attributes => fn () =>
wenzelm@26079
   313
    let
wenzelm@28122
   314
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, data);
wenzelm@26079
   315
      val result = Exn.capture (restore_attributes f) x;
wenzelm@28122
   316
      val _ = Thread.setLocal (tag, orig_data);
wenzelm@26079
   317
    in Exn.release result end) ();
wenzelm@25797
   318
wenzelm@19644
   319
wenzelm@21395
   320
wenzelm@233
   321
(** lists **)
wenzelm@233
   322
skalberg@15570
   323
exception UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   324
wenzelm@5285
   325
fun single x = [x];
wenzelm@233
   326
wenzelm@20882
   327
fun the_single [x] = x
wenzelm@20882
   328
  | the_single _ = raise Empty;
wenzelm@20882
   329
wenzelm@20882
   330
fun singleton f x = the_single (f [x]);
wenzelm@19273
   331
haftmann@25061
   332
fun yield_singleton f x = f [x] #>> the_single;
haftmann@25061
   333
wenzelm@5904
   334
fun apply [] x = x
wenzelm@5904
   335
  | apply (f :: fs) x = apply fs (f x);
wenzelm@5904
   336
wenzelm@25058
   337
fun perhaps_apply funs arg =
wenzelm@25058
   338
  let
wenzelm@25058
   339
    fun app [] res = res
wenzelm@25058
   340
      | app (f :: fs) (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   341
          (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   342
            NONE => app fs (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   343
          | SOME x' => app fs (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   344
  in (case app funs (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   345
wenzelm@25058
   346
fun perhaps_loop f arg =
wenzelm@25058
   347
  let
wenzelm@25058
   348
    fun loop (changed, x) =
wenzelm@25058
   349
      (case f x of
wenzelm@25058
   350
        NONE => (changed, x)
wenzelm@25058
   351
      | SOME x' => loop (true, x'));
wenzelm@25058
   352
  in (case loop (false, arg) of (false, _) => NONE | (true, arg') => SOME arg') end;
wenzelm@25058
   353
wenzelm@233
   354
wenzelm@21395
   355
(* fold -- old versions *)
haftmann@16691
   356
wenzelm@233
   357
(*the following versions of fold are designed to fit nicely with infixes*)
clasohm@0
   358
wenzelm@233
   359
(*  (op @) (e, [x1, ..., xn])  ===>  ((e @ x1) @ x2) ... @ xn
wenzelm@233
   360
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
wenzelm@233
   361
fun foldl (f: 'a * 'b -> 'a) : 'a * 'b list -> 'a =
wenzelm@233
   362
  let fun itl (e, [])  = e
wenzelm@233
   363
        | itl (e, a::l) = itl (f(e, a), l)
wenzelm@233
   364
  in  itl end;
wenzelm@233
   365
wenzelm@233
   366
(*  (op @) ([x1, ..., xn], e)  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (xn @ e))
wenzelm@233
   367
    for operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
wenzelm@233
   368
fun foldr f (l, e) =
wenzelm@233
   369
  let fun itr [] = e
wenzelm@233
   370
        | itr (a::l) = f(a, itr l)
wenzelm@233
   371
  in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   372
berghofe@25681
   373
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>  ((x1 @ x2) @ x3) ... @ xn
berghofe@25681
   374
    for operators that associate to the left (TAIL RECURSIVE)*)
berghofe@25681
   375
fun foldl1 f [] = raise Empty
berghofe@25681
   376
  | foldl1 f (x :: xs) = foldl f (x, xs);
berghofe@25681
   377
wenzelm@233
   378
(*  (op @) [x1, ..., xn]  ===>   x1 @ (x2 ... @ (x[n-1] @ xn))
wenzelm@233
   379
    for n > 0, operators that associate to the right (not tail recursive)*)
paulson@20443
   380
fun foldr1 f [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@20510
   381
  | foldr1 f l =
paulson@20443
   382
      let fun itr [x] = x
wenzelm@20510
   383
            | itr (x::l) = f(x, itr l)
paulson@20443
   384
      in  itr l  end;
wenzelm@233
   385
wenzelm@16705
   386
fun foldl_map f =
wenzelm@16705
   387
  let
wenzelm@16705
   388
    fun fold_aux (x, []) = (x, [])
wenzelm@16705
   389
      | fold_aux (x, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16705
   390
          let
wenzelm@16705
   391
            val (x', y') = f (x, y);
wenzelm@16705
   392
            val (x'', ys') = fold_aux (x', ys);
wenzelm@16705
   393
          in (x'', y' :: ys') end;
wenzelm@16705
   394
  in fold_aux end;
wenzelm@16705
   395
wenzelm@233
   396
wenzelm@233
   397
(* basic list functions *)
wenzelm@233
   398
wenzelm@20510
   399
fun eq_list eq (list1, list2) =
haftmann@20348
   400
  let
wenzelm@20510
   401
    fun eq_lst (x :: xs, y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso eq_lst (xs, ys)
wenzelm@20510
   402
      | eq_lst _ = true;
wenzelm@20510
   403
  in length list1 = length list2 andalso eq_lst (list1, list2) end;
haftmann@20348
   404
wenzelm@19483
   405
fun maps f [] = []
wenzelm@19483
   406
  | maps f (x :: xs) = f x @ maps f xs;
wenzelm@19483
   407
haftmann@25538
   408
val filter = List.filter;
haftmann@25538
   409
fun filter_out f = filter (not o f);
haftmann@25538
   410
val map_filter = List.mapPartial;
haftmann@25538
   411
haftmann@33955
   412
fun take (0: int) xs = []
haftmann@33955
   413
  | take _ [] = []
haftmann@34059
   414
  | take n (x :: xs) = x :: take (n - 1) xs;
haftmann@33955
   415
haftmann@33955
   416
fun drop (0: int) xs = xs
haftmann@33955
   417
  | drop _ [] = []
haftmann@34059
   418
  | drop n (x :: xs) = drop (n - 1) xs;
haftmann@33955
   419
wenzelm@24593
   420
fun chop (0: int) xs = ([], xs)
wenzelm@23220
   421
  | chop _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@23220
   422
  | chop n (x :: xs) = chop (n - 1) xs |>> cons x;
wenzelm@19011
   423
nipkow@4713
   424
fun dropwhile P [] = []
nipkow@4713
   425
  | dropwhile P (ys as x::xs) = if P x then dropwhile P xs else ys;
nipkow@4713
   426
wenzelm@233
   427
(*return nth element of a list, where 0 designates the first element;
wenzelm@18461
   428
  raise Subscript if list too short*)
haftmann@18011
   429
fun nth xs i = List.nth (xs, i);
wenzelm@233
   430
wenzelm@18461
   431
fun nth_list xss i = nth xss i handle Subscript => [];
wenzelm@18461
   432
haftmann@18011
   433
fun nth_map 0 f (x :: xs) = f x :: xs
haftmann@18011
   434
  | nth_map n f (x :: xs) = x :: nth_map (n - 1) f xs
wenzelm@24593
   435
  | nth_map (_: int) _ [] = raise Subscript;
wenzelm@11773
   436
haftmann@24846
   437
fun nth_drop n xs =
haftmann@24846
   438
  List.take (xs, n) @ List.drop (xs, n + 1);
haftmann@24846
   439
haftmann@18514
   440
fun map_index f =
haftmann@18514
   441
  let
wenzelm@24593
   442
    fun mapp (_: int) [] = []
wenzelm@24593
   443
      | mapp i (x :: xs) = f (i, x) :: mapp (i + 1) xs
haftmann@18514
   444
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@18514
   445
haftmann@21118
   446
fun fold_index f =
haftmann@21118
   447
  let
wenzelm@24593
   448
    fun fold_aux (_: int) [] y = y
wenzelm@24593
   449
      | fold_aux i (x :: xs) y = fold_aux (i + 1) xs (f (i, x) y);
haftmann@21118
   450
  in fold_aux 0 end;
haftmann@21118
   451
haftmann@33063
   452
fun map_range f i =
haftmann@33063
   453
  let
wenzelm@33073
   454
    fun mapp (k: int) =
haftmann@33063
   455
      if k < i then f k :: mapp (k + 1) else [];
haftmann@33063
   456
  in mapp 0 end;
haftmann@33063
   457
skalberg@15570
   458
val last_elem = List.last;
wenzelm@233
   459
wenzelm@3762
   460
(*rear decomposition*)
skalberg@15570
   461
fun split_last [] = raise Empty
wenzelm@3762
   462
  | split_last [x] = ([], x)
wenzelm@3762
   463
  | split_last (x :: xs) = apfst (cons x) (split_last xs);
wenzelm@3762
   464
ballarin@29209
   465
(*find position of first element satisfying a predicate*)
wenzelm@4212
   466
fun find_index pred =
wenzelm@24593
   467
  let fun find (_: int) [] = ~1
wenzelm@4212
   468
        | find n (x :: xs) = if pred x then n else find (n + 1) xs;
wenzelm@4212
   469
  in find 0 end;
wenzelm@3762
   470
wenzelm@4212
   471
(*find first element satisfying predicate*)
paulson@22593
   472
val find_first = List.find;
wenzelm@233
   473
wenzelm@4916
   474
(*get first element by lookup function*)
skalberg@15531
   475
fun get_first _ [] = NONE
wenzelm@4916
   476
  | get_first f (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@4916
   477
      (case f x of
skalberg@15531
   478
        NONE => get_first f xs
wenzelm@4916
   479
      | some => some);
wenzelm@4916
   480
haftmann@19233
   481
fun get_index f =
haftmann@19233
   482
  let
wenzelm@24593
   483
    fun get (_: int) [] = NONE
wenzelm@19461
   484
      | get i (x :: xs) =
haftmann@19233
   485
          case f x
wenzelm@19461
   486
           of NONE => get (i + 1) xs
haftmann@19233
   487
            | SOME y => SOME (i, y)
haftmann@19233
   488
  in get 0 end;
haftmann@19233
   489
skalberg@15531
   490
val flat = List.concat;
wenzelm@233
   491
wenzelm@12136
   492
fun unflat (xs :: xss) ys =
wenzelm@19424
   493
      let val (ps, qs) = chop (length xs) ys
nipkow@13629
   494
      in ps :: unflat xss qs end
wenzelm@12136
   495
  | unflat [] [] = []
skalberg@15570
   496
  | unflat _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@12136
   497
wenzelm@21479
   498
fun burrow f xss = unflat xss (f (flat xss));
haftmann@18359
   499
wenzelm@24864
   500
fun burrow_options f os = map (try hd) (burrow f (map the_list os));
wenzelm@24864
   501
haftmann@18549
   502
fun fold_burrow f xss s =
haftmann@18549
   503
  apfst (unflat xss) (f (flat xss) s);
haftmann@18359
   504
wenzelm@233
   505
(*separate s [x1, x2, ..., xn]  ===>  [x1, s, x2, s, ..., s, xn]*)
wenzelm@233
   506
fun separate s (x :: (xs as _ :: _)) = x :: s :: separate s xs
wenzelm@233
   507
  | separate _ xs = xs;
wenzelm@233
   508
wenzelm@25980
   509
fun surround s (x :: xs) = s :: x :: surround s xs
wenzelm@25980
   510
  | surround s [] = [s];
wenzelm@25980
   511
wenzelm@233
   512
(*make the list [x, x, ..., x] of length n*)
wenzelm@24593
   513
fun replicate (n: int) x =
wenzelm@233
   514
  let fun rep (0, xs) = xs
wenzelm@233
   515
        | rep (n, xs) = rep (n - 1, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   516
  in
skalberg@15570
   517
    if n < 0 then raise Subscript
wenzelm@233
   518
    else rep (n, [])
wenzelm@233
   519
  end;
wenzelm@233
   520
wenzelm@4248
   521
wenzelm@25549
   522
(* direct product *)
wenzelm@25549
   523
haftmann@25538
   524
fun map_product f _ [] = []
haftmann@25538
   525
  | map_product f [] _ = []
haftmann@25538
   526
  | map_product f (x :: xs) ys = map (f x) ys @ map_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   527
haftmann@25538
   528
fun fold_product f _ [] z = z
haftmann@25538
   529
  | fold_product f [] _ z = z
haftmann@25538
   530
  | fold_product f (x :: xs) ys z = z |> fold (f x) ys |> fold_product f xs ys;
wenzelm@233
   531
wenzelm@25549
   532
wenzelm@25549
   533
(* lists of pairs *)
wenzelm@233
   534
skalberg@15570
   535
exception UnequalLengths;
skalberg@15570
   536
haftmann@18330
   537
fun map2 _ [] [] = []
haftmann@18330
   538
  | map2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = f x y :: map2 f xs ys
haftmann@18330
   539
  | map2 _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   540
wenzelm@23220
   541
fun fold2 f [] [] z = z
wenzelm@23220
   542
  | fold2 f (x :: xs) (y :: ys) z = fold2 f xs ys (f x y z)
wenzelm@23220
   543
  | fold2 f _ _ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@380
   544
haftmann@25943
   545
fun map_split f [] = ([], [])
haftmann@25943
   546
  | map_split f (x :: xs) =
haftmann@25943
   547
      let
haftmann@25943
   548
        val (y, w) = f x;
haftmann@25943
   549
        val (ys, ws) = map_split f xs;
haftmann@25943
   550
      in (y :: ys, w :: ws) end;
haftmann@25943
   551
wenzelm@19799
   552
fun zip_options (x :: xs) (SOME y :: ys) = (x, y) :: zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   553
  | zip_options (_ :: xs) (NONE :: ys) = zip_options xs ys
wenzelm@19799
   554
  | zip_options _ [] = []
wenzelm@19799
   555
  | zip_options [] _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@4956
   556
wenzelm@233
   557
(*combine two lists forming a list of pairs:
wenzelm@233
   558
  [x1, ..., xn] ~~ [y1, ..., yn]  ===>  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]*)
wenzelm@233
   559
fun [] ~~ [] = []
wenzelm@233
   560
  | (x :: xs) ~~ (y :: ys) = (x, y) :: (xs ~~ ys)
skalberg@15570
   561
  | _ ~~ _ = raise UnequalLengths;
wenzelm@233
   562
wenzelm@233
   563
(*inverse of ~~; the old 'split':
wenzelm@233
   564
  [(x1, y1), ..., (xn, yn)]  ===>  ([x1, ..., xn], [y1, ..., yn])*)
skalberg@15570
   565
val split_list = ListPair.unzip;
wenzelm@233
   566
haftmann@28347
   567
fun burrow_fst f xs = split_list xs |>> f |> op ~~;
haftmann@28347
   568
wenzelm@233
   569
wenzelm@233
   570
(* prefixes, suffixes *)
wenzelm@233
   571
haftmann@18441
   572
fun is_prefix _ [] _ = true
haftmann@18441
   573
  | is_prefix eq (x :: xs) (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) andalso is_prefix eq xs ys
haftmann@18441
   574
  | is_prefix eq _ _ = false;
wenzelm@233
   575
wenzelm@233
   576
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., x(i-1)], [xi, ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   577
   where xi is the first element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   578
fun take_prefix (pred : 'a -> bool)  (xs: 'a list) : 'a list * 'a list =
wenzelm@233
   579
  let fun take (rxs, []) = (rev rxs, [])
wenzelm@255
   580
        | take (rxs, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@255
   581
            if  pred x  then  take(x :: rxs, xs)  else  (rev rxs, x :: xs)
wenzelm@233
   582
  in  take([], xs)  end;
wenzelm@233
   583
haftmann@20108
   584
fun chop_prefix eq ([], ys) = ([], ([], ys))
haftmann@20108
   585
  | chop_prefix eq (xs, []) = ([], (xs, []))
wenzelm@23220
   586
  | chop_prefix eq (xs as x :: xs', ys as y :: ys') =
haftmann@20108
   587
      if eq (x, y) then
haftmann@20108
   588
        let val (ps', xys'') = chop_prefix eq (xs', ys')
wenzelm@23220
   589
        in (x :: ps', xys'') end
haftmann@20108
   590
      else ([], (xs, ys));
haftmann@20108
   591
wenzelm@233
   592
(* [x1, ..., xi, ..., xn]  --->  ([x1, ..., xi], [x(i+1), ..., xn])
wenzelm@233
   593
   where xi is the last element that does not satisfy the predicate*)
wenzelm@233
   594
fun take_suffix _ [] = ([], [])
wenzelm@233
   595
  | take_suffix pred (x :: xs) =
wenzelm@233
   596
      (case take_suffix pred xs of
wenzelm@233
   597
        ([], sffx) => if pred x then ([], x :: sffx) else ([x], sffx)
wenzelm@233
   598
      | (prfx, sffx) => (x :: prfx, sffx));
wenzelm@233
   599
wenzelm@12249
   600
fun prefixes1 [] = []
wenzelm@12249
   601
  | prefixes1 (x :: xs) = map (cons x) ([] :: prefixes1 xs);
wenzelm@12249
   602
wenzelm@19011
   603
fun prefixes xs = [] :: prefixes1 xs;
wenzelm@19011
   604
wenzelm@12249
   605
fun suffixes1 xs = map rev (prefixes1 (rev xs));
wenzelm@19011
   606
fun suffixes xs = [] :: suffixes1 xs;
wenzelm@233
   607
wenzelm@23220
   608
wenzelm@23220
   609
wenzelm@233
   610
(** integers **)
wenzelm@233
   611
wenzelm@233
   612
(* lists of integers *)
wenzelm@233
   613
wenzelm@233
   614
(*make the list [from, from + 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   615
fun ((i: int) upto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   616
  if i > j then [] else i :: (i + 1 upto j);
wenzelm@233
   617
wenzelm@233
   618
(*make the list [from, from - 1, ..., to]*)
wenzelm@24593
   619
fun ((i: int) downto j) =
wenzelm@21859
   620
  if i < j then [] else i :: (i - 1 downto j);
wenzelm@233
   621
wenzelm@233
   622
wenzelm@233
   623
(* convert integers to strings *)
wenzelm@233
   624
wenzelm@233
   625
(*expand the number in the given base;
wenzelm@233
   626
  example: radixpand (2, 8) gives [1, 0, 0, 0]*)
wenzelm@233
   627
fun radixpand (base, num) : int list =
wenzelm@233
   628
  let
wenzelm@233
   629
    fun radix (n, tail) =
wenzelm@233
   630
      if n < base then n :: tail
wenzelm@233
   631
      else radix (n div base, (n mod base) :: tail)
wenzelm@233
   632
  in radix (num, []) end;
wenzelm@233
   633
wenzelm@233
   634
(*expands a number into a string of characters starting from "zerochar";
wenzelm@233
   635
  example: radixstring (2, "0", 8) gives "1000"*)
wenzelm@233
   636
fun radixstring (base, zerochar, num) =
wenzelm@233
   637
  let val offset = ord zerochar;
wenzelm@233
   638
      fun chrof n = chr (offset + n)
wenzelm@233
   639
  in implode (map chrof (radixpand (base, num))) end;
wenzelm@233
   640
wenzelm@233
   641
paulson@3407
   642
val string_of_int = Int.toString;
wenzelm@233
   643
wenzelm@21942
   644
fun signed_string_of_int i =
wenzelm@21942
   645
  if i < 0 then "-" ^ string_of_int (~ i) else string_of_int i;
wenzelm@21942
   646
wenzelm@23220
   647
fun string_of_indexname (a, 0) = a
wenzelm@23220
   648
  | string_of_indexname (a, i) = a ^ "_" ^ string_of_int i;
wenzelm@233
   649
wenzelm@233
   650
wenzelm@14826
   651
(* read integers *)
wenzelm@14826
   652
wenzelm@24630
   653
fun read_radix_int radix cs =
wenzelm@20095
   654
  let
wenzelm@20095
   655
    val zero = ord "0";
wenzelm@20095
   656
    val limit = zero + radix;
wenzelm@20095
   657
    fun scan (num, []) = (num, [])
wenzelm@20095
   658
      | scan (num, c :: cs) =
wenzelm@20095
   659
        if zero <= ord c andalso ord c < limit then
wenzelm@24630
   660
          scan (radix * num + (ord c - zero), cs)
wenzelm@20095
   661
        else (num, c :: cs);
wenzelm@24630
   662
  in scan (0, cs) end;
wenzelm@14826
   663
wenzelm@24630
   664
val read_int = read_radix_int 10;
wenzelm@14826
   665
wenzelm@24630
   666
fun oct_char s = chr (#1 (read_radix_int 8 (explode s)));
wenzelm@14826
   667
wenzelm@14826
   668
wenzelm@14826
   669
wenzelm@233
   670
(** strings **)
wenzelm@233
   671
wenzelm@16188
   672
(* functions tuned for strings, avoiding explode *)
wenzelm@6312
   673
haftmann@18011
   674
fun nth_string str i =
wenzelm@6959
   675
  (case try String.substring (str, i, 1) of
skalberg@15531
   676
    SOME s => s
skalberg@15570
   677
  | NONE => raise Subscript);
wenzelm@6312
   678
wenzelm@16188
   679
fun fold_string f str x0 =
wenzelm@6282
   680
  let
wenzelm@6282
   681
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@16188
   682
    fun iter (x, i) =
wenzelm@16188
   683
      if i < n then iter (f (String.substring (str, i, 1)) x, i + 1) else x;
wenzelm@16188
   684
  in iter (x0, 0) end;
wenzelm@6282
   685
wenzelm@14968
   686
fun exists_string pred str =
wenzelm@14968
   687
  let
wenzelm@14968
   688
    val n = size str;
wenzelm@14968
   689
    fun ex i = i < n andalso (pred (String.substring (str, i, 1)) orelse ex (i + 1));
wenzelm@14968
   690
  in ex 0 end;
wenzelm@6312
   691
wenzelm@16188
   692
fun forall_string pred = not o exists_string (not o pred);
wenzelm@16188
   693
wenzelm@28025
   694
fun first_field sep str =
wenzelm@28022
   695
  let
wenzelm@28025
   696
    val n = size sep;
wenzelm@28022
   697
    val len = size str;
wenzelm@28022
   698
    fun find i =
wenzelm@28022
   699
      if i + n > len then NONE
wenzelm@28025
   700
      else if String.substring (str, i, n) = sep then SOME i
wenzelm@28022
   701
      else find (i + 1);
wenzelm@28025
   702
  in
wenzelm@28025
   703
    (case find 0 of
wenzelm@28025
   704
      NONE => NONE
wenzelm@28025
   705
    | SOME i => SOME (String.substring (str, 0, i), String.extract (str, i + n, NONE)))
wenzelm@28025
   706
  end;
wenzelm@28022
   707
lcp@512
   708
(*enclose in brackets*)
lcp@512
   709
fun enclose lpar rpar str = lpar ^ str ^ rpar;
wenzelm@6642
   710
fun unenclose str = String.substring (str, 1, size str - 2);
wenzelm@255
   711
wenzelm@233
   712
(*simple quoting (does not escape special chars)*)
lcp@512
   713
val quote = enclose "\"" "\"";
wenzelm@233
   714
wenzelm@4212
   715
(*space_implode "..." (explode "hello") = "h...e...l...l...o"*)
wenzelm@233
   716
fun space_implode a bs = implode (separate a bs);
wenzelm@233
   717
wenzelm@255
   718
val commas = space_implode ", ";
wenzelm@380
   719
val commas_quote = commas o map quote;
wenzelm@255
   720
wenzelm@233
   721
(*concatenate messages, one per line, into a string*)
wenzelm@255
   722
val cat_lines = space_implode "\n";
wenzelm@233
   723
wenzelm@4212
   724
(*space_explode "." "h.e..l.lo" = ["h", "e", "", "l", "lo"]*)
wenzelm@3832
   725
fun space_explode _ "" = []
paulson@21899
   726
  | space_explode sep s = String.fields (fn c => str c = sep) s;
wenzelm@3832
   727
wenzelm@3832
   728
val split_lines = space_explode "\n";
wenzelm@3832
   729
wenzelm@14826
   730
fun prefix_lines "" txt = txt
wenzelm@14826
   731
  | prefix_lines prfx txt = txt |> split_lines |> map (fn s => prfx ^ s) |> cat_lines;
wenzelm@14826
   732
wenzelm@18681
   733
fun prefix prfx s = prfx ^ s;
wenzelm@16188
   734
fun suffix sffx s = s ^ sffx;
wenzelm@5285
   735
wenzelm@18681
   736
fun unprefix prfx s =
wenzelm@18681
   737
  if String.isPrefix prfx s then String.substring (s, size prfx, size s - size prfx)
wenzelm@18681
   738
  else raise Fail "unprefix";
wenzelm@18681
   739
wenzelm@16188
   740
fun unsuffix sffx s =
wenzelm@17061
   741
  if String.isSuffix sffx s then String.substring (s, 0, size s - size sffx)
wenzelm@17061
   742
  else raise Fail "unsuffix";
wenzelm@5285
   743
wenzelm@24593
   744
fun replicate_string (0: int) _ = ""
wenzelm@10951
   745
  | replicate_string 1 a = a
wenzelm@10951
   746
  | replicate_string k a =
wenzelm@10951
   747
      if k mod 2 = 0 then replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a)
wenzelm@10951
   748
      else replicate_string (k div 2) (a ^ a) ^ a;
wenzelm@10951
   749
haftmann@31250
   750
fun translate_string f = String.translate (f o String.str);
haftmann@31250
   751
kleing@29882
   752
(*crude matching of str against simple glob pat*)
kleing@29882
   753
fun match_string pat str =
kleing@29882
   754
  let
kleing@29882
   755
    fun match [] _ = true
kleing@29882
   756
      | match (p :: ps) s =
kleing@29882
   757
          size p <= size s andalso
kleing@29882
   758
            (case try (unprefix p) s of
kleing@29882
   759
              SOME s' => match ps s'
kleing@29882
   760
            | NONE => match (p :: ps) (String.substring (s, 1, size s - 1)));
kleing@29882
   761
  in match (space_explode "*" pat) str end;
wenzelm@23220
   762
wenzelm@35976
   763
wenzelm@35976
   764
wenzelm@16492
   765
(** lists as sets -- see also Pure/General/ord_list.ML **)
wenzelm@233
   766
wenzelm@26439
   767
(* canonical operations *)
wenzelm@26439
   768
wenzelm@18923
   769
fun member eq list x =
wenzelm@18923
   770
  let
wenzelm@18923
   771
    fun memb [] = false
wenzelm@18923
   772
      | memb (y :: ys) = eq (x, y) orelse memb ys;
wenzelm@18923
   773
  in memb list end;
berghofe@1576
   774
wenzelm@18923
   775
fun insert eq x xs = if member eq xs x then xs else x :: xs;
wenzelm@18923
   776
fun remove eq x xs = if member eq xs x then filter_out (fn y => eq (x, y)) xs else xs;
wenzelm@24049
   777
fun update eq x xs = cons x (remove eq x xs);
wenzelm@233
   778
haftmann@33049
   779
fun inter eq xs = filter (member eq xs);
haftmann@33049
   780
haftmann@33042
   781
fun union eq = fold (insert eq);
wenzelm@19301
   782
fun subtract eq = fold (remove eq);
wenzelm@19301
   783
wenzelm@30572
   784
fun merge eq (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@30572
   785
  if pointer_eq (xs, ys) then xs
wenzelm@30572
   786
  else if null xs then ys
wenzelm@30572
   787
  else fold_rev (insert eq) ys xs;
clasohm@0
   788
wenzelm@26439
   789
haftmann@33050
   790
(* subset and set equality *)
haftmann@33050
   791
haftmann@33038
   792
fun subset eq (xs, ys) = forall (member eq ys) xs;
berghofe@1576
   793
haftmann@33038
   794
fun eq_set eq (xs, ys) =
haftmann@20348
   795
  eq_list eq (xs, ys) orelse
haftmann@33038
   796
    (subset eq (xs, ys) andalso subset (eq o swap) (ys, xs));
wenzelm@19301
   797
wenzelm@265
   798
wenzelm@233
   799
(*makes a list of the distinct members of the input; preserves order, takes
wenzelm@233
   800
  first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@19046
   801
fun distinct eq lst =
wenzelm@233
   802
  let
wenzelm@233
   803
    fun dist (rev_seen, []) = rev rev_seen
wenzelm@233
   804
      | dist (rev_seen, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   805
          if member eq rev_seen x then dist (rev_seen, xs)
wenzelm@233
   806
          else dist (x :: rev_seen, xs);
wenzelm@19046
   807
  in dist ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@233
   808
wenzelm@255
   809
(*returns a list containing all repeated elements exactly once; preserves
wenzelm@255
   810
  order, takes first of equal elements*)
wenzelm@18966
   811
fun duplicates eq lst =
wenzelm@255
   812
  let
wenzelm@255
   813
    fun dups (rev_dups, []) = rev rev_dups
wenzelm@255
   814
      | dups (rev_dups, x :: xs) =
wenzelm@18923
   815
          if member eq rev_dups x orelse not (member eq xs x) then
wenzelm@255
   816
            dups (rev_dups, xs)
wenzelm@255
   817
          else dups (x :: rev_dups, xs);
wenzelm@18966
   818
  in dups ([], lst) end;
wenzelm@255
   819
wenzelm@16878
   820
fun has_duplicates eq =
wenzelm@16878
   821
  let
wenzelm@16878
   822
    fun dups [] = false
wenzelm@16878
   823
      | dups (x :: xs) = member eq xs x orelse dups xs;
wenzelm@16878
   824
  in dups end;
wenzelm@16878
   825
wenzelm@255
   826
haftmann@32352
   827
(* matrices *)
haftmann@32352
   828
haftmann@32352
   829
fun map_transpose f xss =
haftmann@32352
   830
  let
haftmann@32352
   831
    val n = case distinct (op =) (map length xss)
haftmann@32352
   832
     of [] => 0
haftmann@32352
   833
      | [n] => n
haftmann@32352
   834
      | _ => raise UnequalLengths;
haftmann@33206
   835
  in map_range (fn m => f (map (fn xs => nth xs m) xss)) n end;
haftmann@32352
   836
haftmann@32352
   837
wenzelm@23220
   838
nipkow@22142
   839
(** lists as multisets **)
nipkow@22142
   840
haftmann@33078
   841
fun remove1 eq x [] = []
haftmann@33078
   842
  | remove1 eq x (y :: ys) = if eq (x, y) then ys else y :: remove1 eq x ys;
nipkow@22142
   843
haftmann@33078
   844
fun combine eq xs ys = fold (remove1 eq) ys xs @ ys;
wenzelm@233
   845
haftmann@33079
   846
fun submultiset _ ([], _)  = true
haftmann@33079
   847
  | submultiset eq (x :: xs, ys) = member eq ys x andalso submultiset eq (xs, remove1 eq x ys);
haftmann@33079
   848
clasohm@0
   849
clasohm@0
   850
wenzelm@2506
   851
(** orders **)
wenzelm@2506
   852
wenzelm@18966
   853
fun is_equal EQUAL = true
wenzelm@18966
   854
  | is_equal _ = false;
wenzelm@18966
   855
wenzelm@4445
   856
fun rev_order LESS = GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   857
  | rev_order EQUAL = EQUAL
wenzelm@4445
   858
  | rev_order GREATER = LESS;
wenzelm@4445
   859
wenzelm@4479
   860
(*assume rel is a linear strict order*)
wenzelm@4445
   861
fun make_ord rel (x, y) =
wenzelm@4445
   862
  if rel (x, y) then LESS
wenzelm@4445
   863
  else if rel (y, x) then GREATER
wenzelm@4445
   864
  else EQUAL;
wenzelm@4445
   865
wenzelm@25224
   866
fun bool_ord (false, true) = LESS
wenzelm@25224
   867
  | bool_ord (true, false) = GREATER
wenzelm@25224
   868
  | bool_ord _ = EQUAL;
wenzelm@25224
   869
wenzelm@15051
   870
val int_ord = Int.compare;
wenzelm@15051
   871
val string_ord = String.compare;
wenzelm@2506
   872
wenzelm@16676
   873
fun fast_string_ord (s1, s2) =
wenzelm@16676
   874
  (case int_ord (size s1, size s2) of EQUAL => string_ord (s1, s2) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@16676
   875
wenzelm@16492
   876
fun option_ord ord (SOME x, SOME y) = ord (x, y)
wenzelm@16492
   877
  | option_ord _ (NONE, NONE) = EQUAL
wenzelm@16492
   878
  | option_ord _ (NONE, SOME _) = LESS
wenzelm@16492
   879
  | option_ord _ (SOME _, NONE) = GREATER;
wenzelm@16492
   880
wenzelm@4343
   881
(*lexicographic product*)
wenzelm@4343
   882
fun prod_ord a_ord b_ord ((x, y), (x', y')) =
wenzelm@4343
   883
  (case a_ord (x, x') of EQUAL => b_ord (y, y') | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   884
wenzelm@4343
   885
(*dictionary order -- in general NOT well-founded!*)
wenzelm@16984
   886
fun dict_ord elem_ord (x :: xs, y :: ys) =
wenzelm@16984
   887
      (case elem_ord (x, y) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord)
wenzelm@16984
   888
  | dict_ord _ ([], []) = EQUAL
wenzelm@4343
   889
  | dict_ord _ ([], _ :: _) = LESS
wenzelm@16984
   890
  | dict_ord _ (_ :: _, []) = GREATER;
wenzelm@4343
   891
wenzelm@4343
   892
(*lexicographic product of lists*)
wenzelm@4343
   893
fun list_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) =
wenzelm@16676
   894
  (case int_ord (length xs, length ys) of EQUAL => dict_ord elem_ord (xs, ys) | ord => ord);
wenzelm@4343
   895
wenzelm@2506
   896
wenzelm@4621
   897
(* sorting *)
wenzelm@4621
   898
wenzelm@18427
   899
(*quicksort -- stable, i.e. does not reorder equal elements*)
wenzelm@18427
   900
fun quicksort unique ord =
wenzelm@4621
   901
  let
wenzelm@16878
   902
    fun qsort [] = []
wenzelm@16878
   903
      | qsort (xs as [_]) = xs
wenzelm@18427
   904
      | qsort (xs as [x, y]) =
wenzelm@18427
   905
          (case ord (x, y) of
wenzelm@18427
   906
            LESS => xs
wenzelm@18427
   907
          | EQUAL => if unique then [x] else xs
wenzelm@18427
   908
          | GREATER => [y, x])
wenzelm@16878
   909
      | qsort xs =
haftmann@18011
   910
          let val (lts, eqs, gts) = part (nth xs (length xs div 2)) xs
wenzelm@16878
   911
          in qsort lts @ eqs @ qsort gts end
wenzelm@4621
   912
    and part _ [] = ([], [], [])
wenzelm@4621
   913
      | part pivot (x :: xs) = add (ord (x, pivot)) x (part pivot xs)
wenzelm@4621
   914
    and add LESS x (lts, eqs, gts) = (x :: lts, eqs, gts)
wenzelm@18427
   915
      | add EQUAL x (lts, [], gts) = (lts, [x], gts)
wenzelm@18427
   916
      | add EQUAL x (res as (lts, eqs, gts)) = if unique then res else (lts, x :: eqs, gts)
wenzelm@4621
   917
      | add GREATER x (lts, eqs, gts) = (lts, eqs, x :: gts);
wenzelm@4621
   918
  in qsort end;
wenzelm@4621
   919
wenzelm@18427
   920
fun sort ord = quicksort false ord;
wenzelm@18427
   921
fun sort_distinct ord = quicksort true ord;
wenzelm@18427
   922
wenzelm@4621
   923
val sort_strings = sort string_ord;
wenzelm@4621
   924
fun sort_wrt sel xs = sort (string_ord o pairself sel) xs;
wenzelm@4621
   925
wenzelm@4621
   926
wenzelm@30558
   927
(* items tagged by integer index *)
wenzelm@30558
   928
wenzelm@30558
   929
(*insert tags*)
wenzelm@30558
   930
fun tag_list k [] = []
haftmann@30570
   931
  | tag_list k (x :: xs) = (k:int, x) :: tag_list (k + 1) xs;
wenzelm@30558
   932
wenzelm@30558
   933
(*remove tags and suppress duplicates -- list is assumed sorted!*)
wenzelm@30558
   934
fun untag_list [] = []
wenzelm@30558
   935
  | untag_list [(k: int, x)] = [x]
wenzelm@30558
   936
  | untag_list ((k, x) :: (rest as (k', x') :: _)) =
wenzelm@30558
   937
      if k = k' then untag_list rest
wenzelm@30558
   938
      else x :: untag_list rest;
wenzelm@30558
   939
wenzelm@30558
   940
(*return list elements in original order*)
wenzelm@30558
   941
fun order_list list = untag_list (sort (int_ord o pairself fst) list);
wenzelm@30558
   942
wenzelm@30558
   943
wenzelm@2506
   944
berghofe@14106
   945
(** random numbers **)
berghofe@14106
   946
berghofe@14106
   947
exception RANDOM;
berghofe@14106
   948
berghofe@14618
   949
fun rmod x y = x - y * Real.realFloor (x / y);
berghofe@14106
   950
berghofe@14106
   951
local
berghofe@14106
   952
  val a = 16807.0;
berghofe@14106
   953
  val m = 2147483647.0;
wenzelm@32737
   954
  val random_seed = Unsynchronized.ref 1.0;
berghofe@14106
   955
in
berghofe@14106
   956
wenzelm@23922
   957
fun random () = CRITICAL (fn () =>
wenzelm@23922
   958
  let val r = rmod (a * ! random_seed) m
wenzelm@23922
   959
  in (random_seed := r; r) end);
berghofe@14106
   960
berghofe@14106
   961
end;
berghofe@14106
   962
berghofe@14106
   963
fun random_range l h =
berghofe@14106
   964
  if h < l orelse l < 0 then raise RANDOM
berghofe@14106
   965
  else l + Real.floor (rmod (random ()) (real (h - l + 1)));
berghofe@14106
   966
haftmann@18011
   967
fun one_of xs = nth xs (random_range 0 (length xs - 1));
berghofe@14106
   968
berghofe@14106
   969
fun frequency xs =
berghofe@14106
   970
  let
berghofe@14106
   971
    val sum = foldl op + (0, map fst xs);
wenzelm@17756
   972
    fun pick n ((k: int, x) :: xs) =
berghofe@14106
   973
      if n <= k then x else pick (n - k) xs
berghofe@14106
   974
  in pick (random_range 1 sum) xs end;
berghofe@14106
   975
berghofe@14106
   976
wenzelm@23220
   977
wenzelm@4621
   978
(** misc **)
wenzelm@233
   979
wenzelm@19644
   980
fun divide_and_conquer decomp x =
wenzelm@19644
   981
  let val (ys, recomb) = decomp x
wenzelm@19644
   982
  in recomb (map (divide_and_conquer decomp) ys) end;
wenzelm@19644
   983
wenzelm@32978
   984
fun divide_and_conquer' decomp x s =
wenzelm@32978
   985
  let val ((ys, recomb), s') = decomp x s
wenzelm@32978
   986
  in recomb (fold_map (divide_and_conquer' decomp) ys s') end;
wenzelm@32978
   987
clasohm@0
   988
wenzelm@233
   989
(*Partition a list into buckets  [ bi, b(i+1), ..., bj ]
clasohm@0
   990
   putting x in bk if p(k)(x) holds.  Preserve order of elements if possible.*)
clasohm@0
   991
fun partition_list p i j =
wenzelm@37851
   992
  let
wenzelm@37851
   993
    fun part (k: int) xs =
wenzelm@37851
   994
      if k > j then
wenzelm@37851
   995
        (case xs of
wenzelm@37851
   996
          [] => []
wenzelm@37851
   997
        | _ => raise Fail "partition_list")
wenzelm@37851
   998
      else
wenzelm@37851
   999
        let val (ns, rest) = List.partition (p k) xs
wenzelm@37851
  1000
        in ns :: part (k + 1) rest end;
wenzelm@37851
  1001
  in part (i: int) end;
clasohm@0
  1002
wenzelm@37851
  1003
fun partition_eq (eq: 'a * 'a -> bool) =
wenzelm@19691
  1004
  let
wenzelm@19691
  1005
    fun part [] = []
wenzelm@19691
  1006
      | part (x :: ys) =
wenzelm@19691
  1007
          let val (xs, xs') = List.partition (fn y => eq (x, y)) ys
wenzelm@37851
  1008
          in (x :: xs) :: part xs' end;
wenzelm@19691
  1009
  in part end;
wenzelm@19691
  1010
wenzelm@19691
  1011
clasohm@0
  1012
wenzelm@233
  1013
(* generating identifiers *)
clasohm@0
  1014
paulson@4063
  1015
(** Freshly generated identifiers; supplied prefix MUST start with a letter **)
wenzelm@22369
  1016
local
wenzelm@22369
  1017
(*Maps 0-61 to A-Z, a-z, 0-9; exclude _ or ' to avoid clash with internal/unusual indentifiers*)
wenzelm@22582
  1018
fun gensym_char i =
paulson@22368
  1019
  if i<26 then chr (ord "A" + i)
paulson@22368
  1020
  else if i<52 then chr (ord "a" + i - 26)
wenzelm@22369
  1021
  else chr (ord "0" + i - 52);
paulson@4063
  1022
wenzelm@22369
  1023
val char_vec = Vector.tabulate (62, gensym_char);
wenzelm@22369
  1024
fun newid n = implode (map (fn i => Vector.sub (char_vec, i)) (radixpand (62, n)));
wenzelm@4284
  1025
wenzelm@32737
  1026
val gensym_seed = Unsynchronized.ref (0: int);
paulson@2003
  1027
wenzelm@22369
  1028
in
wenzelm@32737
  1029
  fun gensym pre =
wenzelm@32737
  1030
    pre ^ newid (NAMED_CRITICAL "gensym" (fn () => Unsynchronized.inc gensym_seed));
wenzelm@22369
  1031
end;
paulson@4063
  1032
paulson@4063
  1033
wenzelm@16439
  1034
(* stamps and serial numbers *)
wenzelm@16439
  1035
wenzelm@32737
  1036
type stamp = unit Unsynchronized.ref;
wenzelm@32737
  1037
val stamp: unit -> stamp = Unsynchronized.ref;
wenzelm@16439
  1038
wenzelm@16439
  1039
type serial = int;
wenzelm@25702
  1040
val serial = Multithreading.serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1041
val serial_string = string_of_int o serial;
wenzelm@19512
  1042
wenzelm@16535
  1043
wenzelm@16535
  1044
(* generic objects *)
wenzelm@16535
  1045
wenzelm@16535
  1046
(*note that the builtin exception datatype may be extended by new
wenzelm@16535
  1047
  constructors at any time*)
wenzelm@16535
  1048
structure Object = struct type T = exn end;
wenzelm@16535
  1049
clasohm@1364
  1050
end;
clasohm@1364
  1051
wenzelm@32188
  1052
structure Basic_Library: BASIC_LIBRARY = Library;
wenzelm@32188
  1053
open Basic_Library;